Below follow some examples of process definitions. E.g. the definition by Hammer and Champy (1993) provides a good definition, useful also today. The keywords – activities, input, output, customer and value – are recognised in many definitions of processes, as is the horizontal view of the organisation.


[...] a collection of activities that takes one or more kinds of input and creates an output that is of value to the customer (Hammer and Champy, 1993). [...] a specific ordering of activities across time and place, with a beginning, an end, and clearly identified inputs and outputs; a structure for action (Davenport, 1993).

[...] a series of steps designed to produce a product or service (Rummler and Brache, 1995). [...] a sequence of coherent activities creating a value apprehended by the customers (Willoch, 1994).

The ISO Technical Report ISO/TR 26122 “Information and documentation – Work process analysis for records” defines a work process as:

[...] one or more sequences of transactions required to produce an outcome that complies with governing rules. (ISO/TR 26122)