Enclave tourism and Placelessness in Tourism

Exclusively planned tourism destinations, such as gated resort-based communities, all-inclusive resorts, and private cruise liner owned islands, have increased substantially over the last decades, and enclave-style tourism has in recent years seen an increase in scholarly interest.

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Enclaves or enclavic processes are rather common features in tourism development and management situations dominated by external forces, actors, and power inequalities. Tourism enclaves can have varied characteristics and scales of operations but typically they involve standardized ‘non-local’ themes or appeal in their design and activities.

One paper in this project cover results from a study of the marketing of all-inclusive holidays. The study focuses on to what extent the geographic location of the tourist enclave is an important consideration for the travel industry. In other words, when it comes to all-inclusive holiday products, do the place-based attributes on offer at the destination and the actual location of the holiday matter from the perspective of those who are creating and selling the travel packet?

An explorative study of Scandinavian tour operators shows that the local setting of the holiday is in fact a secondary consideration compared to the services and facilities on offer. Thus, there is an overriding tendency to downplay the destination’s place-based attributes and it does not seem so important where the all-inclusive resort is located as long as it is well connected to the market and promises a comfortable holiday to the consumer. Tourism enclaves in the context of placelessness are discussed.

Conference presentations:

Ioannides, D., Wall-Reinius, S. & Zampoukos, K. 2011. The trend towards all-inclusive and other pre-planned tourist destinations: Does geography matter? IV International Critical Tourism Studies (CTS) Conference, 2011, Cardiff, UK.

Wall-Reinius, S. 2017. Does Geography Matter in All-Inclusive Resort Tourism? Nordic Geography Meeting (NGM), June 2017, Stockholm, Sweden.

Wall-Reinius, S. & Saarinen, J. 2017. Enclave tourism: Bordering, spatial homogenisation and differentiation in tourism destination development. Presentation at the international conference on Tourism Shaping Places: Mobilities and Tourism destination evolution, October 2017, Vila Seca, Spain.


Sandra Wall-Reinius

Universitetslektor|Senior Lecturer

010-142 82 46