The following abstract is from a fictitious study and provides an example of the abstract formant required.


The influence of skiing race-suit colour on performance and perceived "coolness" in a 10-km cross-country skiing competition.

Background and Aim

Skiers wearing a blue race suit are reportedly "cooler" than those who wear a red race suit, and may therefore ski faster during a cross-country skiing competition. However, the relationship between these variables has not yet been investigated. This study therefore investigated the relationship between race-suit colour and performance in a 10-km cross-country freestyle skiing competition.


100 image-conscious skiers (50 males, 50 females) with no history of wearing either red or blue race suits volunteered for this study. In a randomised cross-over design, skiers completed a 10-km cross-country skiing competition (freestyle technique), one week apart, wearing either a blue or red race suit. Before each skiing competition, participants completed the Cool Dude Questionnaire Scale to measure pre-race perceived "coolness".


Skiers performed 20 s faster (95% confidence interval (CI): [15, 25]) and were 5.6 times (95% CI: [3.6, 6.5]) more likely to rate themselves as "cooler" in a 10-km skiing competition when wearing blue compared with red race suits.

Conclusion and Practical Application

Skiers wearing blue race suits perceived themselves as "cooler" than those skiers wearing red suits and raced faster in a 10 km cross-country skiing competition. Coaches should encourage those skiers currently wearing red race suits to change to blue race suits, since their skiers may both look "cooler" and race faster. The effects of other race-suit colours on skiing performance and perceived "coolness" need to be further examined.